Eczemaletters

Making sense of eczema

Eczemaletters header image 4

Entries from February 2009

Neonatal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus is not associated with development of atopic dermatitis.

February 28th, 2009 · No Comments

Related Articles

Neonatal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus is not associated with development of atopic dermatitis.

Br J Dermatol. 2009 Feb 23;

Authors: Skov L, Halkjaer LB, Agner T, Frimodt-Møller N, Jarløv JO, Bisgaard H

Background Staphylococcus aureus in atopic skin has been associated with exacerbation of eczema. Objectives To investigate a possible association between neonatal colonization with S. aureus and the risk of atopic dermatitis (AD) during the first 3 years of life. Materials and methods The study participants were 356 children born of mothers with asthma from the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood. Swabs from the vestibulum nasi and the perineum were cultured at 1 month and 1 year, from acute eczema, and from parents (vestibulum nasi and pharynx). AD development and severity were monitored prospectively. Results Of the neonates, 5.3% had positive swabs for S. aureus cultured from the vestibulum nasi (51.3%) and/or the perineum (11.3%). Forty-two per cent developed AD, but without association between colonization with S. aureus at 1 month of age and risk of developing AD at 3 years of age. There was a 70% concordance for S. aureus carriage between neonates and parents. At 1 year of age 11.3% children had swabs positive for S. aureus. Fourteen per cent of children tested at the 1-year visit developed AD after the visit but before 3 years of age, but again, there was no association between colonization with S. aureus and the risk of AD. In children seen at acute visits the severity of AD measured by scoring of atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) was significantly higher in children with a positive culture for S. aureus in lesions. Conclusions Colonization with S. aureus at 1 month of age is not associated with an increased risk of developing AD during the first 3 years of life.

PMID: 19239467 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

[Read more →]

→ Leave a CommentTags: Research→ Discuss article in Forum

Exclusive breastfeeding and incident atopic dermatitis in childhood: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

February 28th, 2009 · No Comments

Related Articles

Exclusive breastfeeding and incident atopic dermatitis in childhood: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

Br J Dermatol. 2009 Feb 23;

Authors: Yang YW, Tsai CL, Lu CY

Background Breastfeeding is undisputedly preferable to formula feeding for infant nutrition because of its nutritional, immunological and psychological benefits. However, studies on the association between breastfeeding and development of atopic dermatitis (AD) have shown inconsistent results. Objectives To examine the association between exclusive breastfeeding for at least 3 months after birth and the development of AD in childhood. Methods An electronic literature search of MEDLINE (January 1966-May 2008) and EMBASE (1980-May 2008) was conducted. Prospective cohort studies that met the predetermined criteria were independently assessed by three reviewers. The pooled effect estimate was calculated by random effects model. Heterogeneity across the studies was investigated by meta-regression analysis. Results Twenty-one studies with 27 study populations were included for meta-analysis. The summary odds ratio (OR) for the effect of exclusive breastfeeding on the risk of AD was 0.89 (95% confidence interval, CI 0.76-1.04). Heterogeneity was found across the studies (chi(2) = 83.6, d.f. = 26; P < 0.001). Breastfeeding was associated with a decreased risk of AD (OR 0.70; 95% CI 0.50-0.99) when analysis was restricted to the studies comparing breastfeeding with conventional formula feeding. The pooled OR for study populations with atopic heredity was 0.78 (95% CI 0.58-1.05). Conclusions There is no strong evidence of a protective effect of exclusive breastfeeding for at least 3 months against AD, even among children with a positive family history.

PMID: 19239469 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

[Read more →]

→ Leave a CommentTags: Research→ Discuss article in Forum

Biomarkers of Th2 polarity are predictive of staphylococcal colonization in subjects with atopic dermatitis.

February 25th, 2009 · No Comments

Related Articles

Biomarkers of Th2 polarity are predictive of staphylococcal colonization in subjects with atopic dermatitis.

Br J Dermatol. 2009 Jan;160(1):183-5

Authors: Warner JA, McGirt LY, Beck LA

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcal colonization of the skin is commonly observed in subjects with atopic dermatitis (AD) and correlates with disease severity. Little is known about whether the degree of T-helper 2 (Th2) polarity in these subjects can also affect the frequency of bacterial colonization in this disease. OBJECTIVES: To determine if there is a correlation between markers of Th2 polarity [serum total IgE, eosinophilia and presence of another atopic disease (allergic rhinitis)] and skin colonization with Staphylococcus aureus in subjects with AD. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed of an academic dermatology clinic focused on the treatment of AD with a single provider. RESULTS: Staphylococcus aureus colonization was more commonly observed in subjects with AD who had peripheral eosinophilia, elevated serum IgE levels, and/or a history of or active allergic rhinitis. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that Th2 polarity may enhance subjects’ risk for bacterial colonization.

PMID: 19016695 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

[Read more →]

→ Leave a CommentTags: Research→ Discuss article in Forum

Validity and responsiveness of the Osnabrück Hand Eczema Severity Index (OHSI): a methodological study.

February 25th, 2009 · No Comments

Related Articles

Validity and responsiveness of the Osnabrück Hand Eczema Severity Index (OHSI): a methodological study.

Br J Dermatol. 2009 Jan;160(1):137-42

Authors: Dulon M, Skudlik C, Nübling M, John SM, Nienhaus A

BACKGROUND: The Osnabrück Hand Eczema Severity Index (OHSI) is a scoring system for the assessment of the severity of hand eczema (HE). OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinimetric value of the OHSI and to validate the longitudinal responsiveness of the OHSI using the Manuscore as a gold standard. METHODS: OHSI and Manuscore scores were compared before and after 3 weeks’ inpatient treatment of 62 patients with occupational HE. Correlation coefficients and 95% limits of agreement were calculated and the ability of OHSI to identify severe HE was analysed. The responsiveness of the OHSI in monitoring skin changes over time was evaluated by calculating effect sizes. RESULTS: High correlation was found between the OHSI and Manuscore at both scoring occasions (around r(s) = 0.77). Differences between both measurements were within the 95% limits of agreement for 94% of patients, with a tendency for the OHSI to underestimate the severity at very low and at very high values compared with the Manuscore. Responsiveness to change was good. Both instruments showed significant improvement between the scoring occasions. Using the OHSI values, the proportion of classification to the correct tertile of score change was 69%. Effect size from untreated to treated was 0.6 for the Manuscore and 1.1 for the OHSI, with higher effect sizes in individuals with severe HE. CONCLUSIONS: Even though the OHSI allows less differentiation than the Manuscore, it shows adequate validity and responsiveness to change. Thus the OHSI is suitable for both monitoring the severity of HE and the effects of treatment.

PMID: 19016701 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

[Read more →]

→ Leave a CommentTags: Research→ Discuss article in Forum

Antisense Targeting of cFLIP Sensitizes Activated T Cells to Undergo Apoptosis and Desensitizes Responses to Contact Dermatitis.

February 25th, 2009 · No Comments

Related Articles

Antisense Targeting of cFLIP Sensitizes Activated T Cells to Undergo Apoptosis and Desensitizes Responses to Contact Dermatitis.

J Invest Dermatol. 2009 Feb 19;

Authors: Mourich DV, Jendrzejewski JL, Marshall NB, Hinrichs DJ, Iversen PL, Brand RM

Contact dermatitis is the result of inflammatory responses mediated by hapten-specific activated CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. Activation-induced cell death (AICD) is a naturally occurring process regulating the resolution of T-cell responses through decreased expression of the antiapoptotic molecule cellular FLICE inhibitory protein (cFLIP). We show that targeting cFLIP expression in vitro and in vivo, with morpholino antisense applied systemically or topically in conjunction with antigen, sensitizes T cells to undergo “early” AICD resulting in tolerance. Analysis of antisense-treated CD8+ OT-1 splenocytes after co-culture with SIINFEKL-pulsed DCs showed apoptosis occurring in a dose-dependent manner with respect to cFLIP peptide-conjugated phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PPMO) concentration. A transplant acceptance model using male DO.11 donor cells and female BALB/c recipient mice showed that cFLIP antisense treatment could promote antigen tolerance. Hypersensitivity responses induced in mice by the epicutaneous application of the haptens FITC and oxazolone confirmed that topically applied cFLIP antisense could reduce inflammation. Treatment of the skin produced significant reduction in dermatitis and localized infiltration of lymphocytes. Moreover, the treatment was target- and antigen-specific, dose-dependent, and capable of inducing long-lived tolerance. These data suggest that the targeted expression of immune-regulating molecules is possible through the application of antisense to the skin.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 19 February 2009; doi:10.1038/jid.2009.16.

PMID: 19225545 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

[Read more →]

→ Leave a CommentTags: Research→ Discuss article in Forum

Is contact allergy to disperse dyes and related substances associated with textile dermatitis?

February 25th, 2009 · No Comments

Related Articles

Is contact allergy to disperse dyes and related substances associated with textile dermatitis?

Br J Dermatol. 2009 Jan;160(1):107-15

Authors: Ryberg K, Goossens A, Isaksson M, Gruvberger B, Zimerson E, Nilsson F, Björk J, Hindsén M, Bruze M

BACKGROUND: Disperse dyes (DDs) are the most common sensitizers among textile dyes, but there is little knowledge of the clinical relevance of positive patch test reactions. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if patient-reported textile-related skin problems can be explained by contact allergy to eight different DDs and/or to chemically related substances, by occupation or by atopic constitution, and if the skin problems are influenced by age or sex. METHODS: A questionnaire on textile-related skin problems was answered by 858 of 982 consecutively patch tested patients in Malmö, Sweden and in Leuven, Belgium. The baseline series used for patch testing was supplemented with a textile dye mix (TDM) consisting of the eight DDs and with the separate dyes. The association between textile-related skin problems and contact allergy to the DDs and other risk factors was investigated using multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Eighteen per cent of the patients suspected textiles as a cause of their skin problems. Atopic constitution and female sex were risk factors for skin reactions. Synthetic materials were the most common textiles to give skin problems. A significant association was found between self-reported textile-related skin problems and contact allergy to para-phenylenediamine (PPD) [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-4.3]. A similar, but more imprecise, adjusted OR was found for TDM (OR 1.9; 95% CI 0.57-5.6). Contact allergy to black rubber mix was too rare to be evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: Contact allergy to PPD was a more prevalent indicator for skin reactions to textiles than the TDM used in this study.

PMID: 19067698 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

[Read more →]

→ Leave a CommentTags: Research→ Discuss article in Forum

Treatment with pimecrolimus cream 1% clears irritant dermatitis of the periocular region, face and neck.

February 25th, 2009 · No Comments

Related Articles

Treatment with pimecrolimus cream 1% clears irritant dermatitis of the periocular region, face and neck.

Int J Dermatol. 2008 Sep;47(9):960-4

Authors: Mensing CO, Mensing CH, Mensing H

BACKGROUND: Irritant dermatitis of the face and neck is particularly prevalent in women > or = 30 years old, who typically present with periocular cutaneous symptoms. Current therapies are limited, indicating a need for rapid, effective alternatives. Pimecrolimus cream 1%, a nonsteroid, cell-selective inhibitor of inflammatory-cytokine release, is effective in the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases, such as chronic irritant dermatitis of the hands, and thus offers a potential therapeutic option for this indication. This study reports on the safety and efficacy of pimecrolimus treatment in patients with irritant periocular dermatitis, extending to the face and neck in some patients. METHODS: Twenty-seven patients with periocular irritant dermatitis (extending onto the face and neck in eight) were treated twice daily with pimecrolimus cream 1% for 7 d, followed by once-daily application for a further 7 d. Erythema, swelling, and pruritus were assessed at baseline, weeks 1-4 using a 4-point clinical score (0, absent; 1, mild; 2, moderate; and 3, severe). RESULTS: All patients showed marked improvement within 2-3 d of treatment with disease clearance in 23 of 27 patients within 14 d. In the remaining four patients, mild relapse occurred at weeks 3-4, but improvement was observed following a further 10-d treatment. Side-effects were mild and transient. CONCLUSION: Pimecrolimus cream 1% provides a new potential option for treatment of irritant dermatitis of the periocular region, head and neck. Further double-blind, controlled studies are required to confirm the efficacy and safety of pimecrolimus cream 1% for this indication.

PMID: 18937664 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

[Read more →]

→ Leave a CommentTags: Research→ Discuss article in Forum

Wet-wrap treatment using dilutions of tacrolimus ointment and fluticasone propionate cream in human APOC1 (+/+) mice with atopic dermatitis.

February 25th, 2009 · No Comments

Related Articles

Wet-wrap treatment using dilutions of tacrolimus ointment and fluticasone propionate cream in human APOC1 (+/+) mice with atopic dermatitis.

Br J Dermatol. 2009 Jan;160(1):54-61

Authors: Oranje AP, Verbeek R, Verzaal P, Haspels I, Prens E, Nagelkerken L

BACKGROUND: Wet-wrap treatment (WWT) with diluted topical steroids is widely used in atopic dermatitis (AD). Mice with transgenic overexpression of human apolipoprotein C1 (APOC1) in the liver and the skin are not only characterized by hyperlipidaemia and raised IgE levels, but also by pruritic dermatitis and a disturbed skin barrier function, providing a novel in vivo mouse model for AD. OBJECTIVES: We investigated an adapted WWT method in the AD model in APOC1 mice in order to establish its efficacy. METHODS: The effect of topical 0.1% and 0.03% tacrolimus ointment, tacrolimus base ointment, different dilutions of 0.05% fluticasone propionate (FP) cream and emollient on the development of dermatitis in APOC1 mice was investigated. WWT was performed with 0.03% tacrolimus ointment or 0.017% FP cream. RESULTS: AD in APOC1 mice responded to topical treatment with tacrolimus or FP. In contrast to tacrolimus treatment, FP treatment was associated with loss of body weight. WWT reinforced several therapeutic aspects, notably improvements in transepidermal water loss and in epidermal thickness. WWT using tacrolimus 0.03% ointment was more effective than WWT using FP 0.017% cream. CONCLUSIONS: AD in APOC1 mice responds to treatment with (diluted) tacrolimus or FP; treatment with FP cream, but not tacrolimus ointment, was associated with weight loss. In this study, the adapted WWT using tacrolimus or FP in mice had a limited improving effect as compared with open application of tacrolimus or FP.

PMID: 18795918 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

[Read more →]

→ Leave a CommentTags: Research→ Discuss article in Forum

Prevalence and molecular characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolates colonizing patients with atopic dermatitis and their close contacts in Singapore.

February 19th, 2009 · No Comments

Related Articles

Prevalence and molecular characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolates colonizing patients with atopic dermatitis and their close contacts in Singapore.

Br J Dermatol. 2009 Feb 12;

Authors: Chiu LS, Ho MS, Hsu LY, Tang MB

Summary Background Staphylococcus aureus colonization is an established pathogenic factor for disease flare in atopic dermatitis (AD). Objectives We conducted a study to investigate the colonization of S. aureus in patients with AD and their close contacts in order to evaluate the possibility of intrafamilial transmission. We sought to determine the distribution of the bacterial virulence factors and their correlation with disease severity. Methods Nasal swabs and skin swabs (patients with AD only) were taken from patients with AD aged 2-21 years and their close contacts, seen at the National Skin Centre from January to March 2007. All S. aureus isolates were typed using multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat fingerprinting (MLVF) and screened for virulence factors via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. AD severity was determined by the SCORAD index. Results A total of 34 patients with AD and 55 close contacts were recruited. Thirty-one (91%) patients were colonized with S. aureus. Twenty-five (45%) of their close contacts were also colonized, and MLVF showed a high concordance of S. aureus isolates in index patients and their close contacts. On multivariate analysis, patients with a moderate SCORAD were more likely to be colonized by enterotoxin B-positive S. aureus (P = 0.027). No virulence factor was significantly associated with a severe SCORAD. Conclusions The prevalence of S. aureus colonization was high among patients with AD and their close contacts. However, no predominant isolate of S. aureus was found to be associated with AD. The presence of superantigen B is possibly associated with moderate rather than severe disease in our population.

PMID: 19222456 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

[Read more →]

→ Leave a CommentTags: Research→ Discuss article in Forum

Evaluation of out-in skin transparency using a colorimeter and food dye in patients with atopic dermatitis.

February 19th, 2009 · No Comments

Related Articles

Evaluation of out-in skin transparency using a colorimeter and food dye in patients with atopic dermatitis.

Br J Dermatol. 2009 Feb 12;

Authors: Mochizuki H, Tadaki H, Takami S, Muramatsu R, Hagiwara S, Mizuno T, Arakawa H

Summary Background Atopic dermatitis is a disease of skin barrier dysfunction and outside stimuli can cross the skin barrier. Objectives To examine a new method for evaluating the outside to inside skin transparency with a colorimeter and yellow dyes. Methods In study 1, a total of 28 volunteer subjects (24 normal and four with atopic dermatitis) participated. After provocation with yellow dye, the skin colour of all the subjects was measured using a colorimeter. The skin transparency index was calculated by the changes of the skin colour to yellow. Other variables of skin function, including transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum hydration, were also measured. In study 2, the skin transparency index was evaluated for a cohort of 38 patients with atopic dermatitis, 27 subjects with dry skin and 29 healthy controls. Results In study 1, the measurement of skin colour (b*) using tartrazine showed good results. There was a significant relationship between the skin transparency index with tartrazine and the atopic dermatitis score (P = 0.014). No other measurements of skin function, including the TEWL, were correlated. In study 2, the skin transparency index score obtained with tartrazine in the patients with atopic dermatitis was significantly higher than that of the controls and those with dry skin (P < 0.001 and P = 0.022, respectively). However, the TEWL in patients with atopic dermatitis was not significantly higher than that of patients with dry skin and the TEWL in subjects with dry skin was not higher than that of the controls. Conclusions This method, which used a colorimeter and food dye, is noninvasive, safe and reliable for the evaluation of out-in skin transparency and can demonstrate the characteristic dysfunction in the skin barrier in patients with atopic dermatitis.

PMID: 19222458 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

[Read more →]

→ Leave a CommentTags: Research→ Discuss article in Forum