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Entries from September 2009

Dermatitis cruris pustulosa et atrophicans revisited: our experience with 37 patients in south India.

September 29th, 2009 · No Comments

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Dermatitis cruris pustulosa et atrophicans revisited: our experience with 37 patients in south India.

Int J Dermatol. 2009 Oct;48(10):1082-90

Authors: Kaimal S, D’Souza M, Kumari R, Parija SC, Sistla S, Badhe BA

BACKGROUND: Dermatitis cruris pustulosa et atrophicans (DCPA) is a distinctive type of chronic superficial folliculitis, with a number of unique features such as its peculiar symmetric localization to legs, extreme chronicity, resistance to therapy, and inevitable alopecia and atrophy. METHODS: All patients with DCPA, attending the Dermatology Outpatient Department at Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER) Hospital, Pondicherry, from December 2006 to June 2008 were included. Parameters recorded were detailed history and examination, hemogram, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, random blood sugar, skin biopsy and cultures from pus and carrier sites (nares, axillae and gluteal fold). RESULTS: 37 patients were studied (35 males and 2 females). Sixteen patients (43.24%) belonged to the 21-30 year-old age group. The disease most commonly began on the legs (81.1%). Majority (78.38%) had a disease duration of less than 5 years. Itching was the most common symptom (89.19%), followed by bleeding and scaling, with no significant systemic symptoms. The lower limbs were involved in all patients. Eleven patients (29.73%) had involvement of other sites–beard, axillae, chest, moustache, abdomen, and eyebrows. Pustules, papules, and scaling were seen in all patients, followed by wiry roughness, atrophy, alopecia, and pigmentation. Aggravating factors included use of full-length synthetic trousers, occupational exposure to potential irritants, and season (summer). Pus culture from the folliculitic lesions grew Staphylococcus aureus in 32 (86.49%) patients. Twenty one patients (56.75%) were carriers of S. aureus in one or more sites. CONCLUSION: DCPA is a chronic folliculitis of the legs, with a multifactorial etiopathogenesis, in which staphylococcal carrier status may be a new potential pathogenetic factor.

PMID: 19775401 [PubMed - in process]

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5-methoxypsoralen plus UVA is superior to medium-dose UVA1 in the treatment of severe atopic dermatitis. A randomized crossover trial.

September 25th, 2009 · No Comments

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5-methoxypsoralen plus UVA is superior to medium-dose UVA1 in the treatment of severe atopic dermatitis. A randomized crossover trial.

Br J Dermatol. 2009 Sep 21;

Authors: Tzaneva S, Kittler H, Holzer G, Reljic D, Weber M, Hönigsmann H, Tanew A

Background: UVA1 and PUVA are effective treatment options for severe atopic dermatitis, however, their relative efficacy has not been determined yet in a head-to-head study. Objectives: To compare UVA1 and oral 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP) plus UVA with respect to efficacy, tolerability and duration of response in patients with severe generalized atopic dermatitis. Methods: 40 patients were included in this randomized observer-blinded crossover trial. The patients either received 15 exposures to medium-dose UVA1 as the first treatment and, in case of relapse, another 15 exposures to 5-MOP plus UVA as the second treatment or vice versa. All patients were followed until 12 months after discontinuation of the last treatment. The SCORAD score was determined by a blinded investigator at baseline, after 10 and 15 treatments each and during the follow-up period. In addition, all adverse events were recorded during the whole study period. Results: 23 patients completed the crossover treatment. Both phototherapies resulted in clinical improvement, however, PUVA reduced the baseline SCORAD score to a significantly greater extent than UVA1 (54.3 +/- 25.7% vs. 37.7 +/- 22.8%; p=0.041). The median length of remission was 4 weeks (interquartile range: 4-11) after discontinuation of UVA1 and 12 weeks (interquartile range: 6-26) after PUVA therapy (p=0.012). Conclusions: PUVA provides a better short- and long-term response than medium-dose UVA1 in patients with severe atopic dermatitis.

PMID: 19769631 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Childhood Eczema Development and Allergic Sensitization in the CCAAPS Cohort.

September 22nd, 2009 · No Comments

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Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Childhood Eczema Development and Allergic Sensitization in the CCAAPS Cohort.

J Invest Dermatol. 2009 Sep 17;

Authors: Biagini Myers JM, Wang N, Lemasters GK, Bernstein DI, Epstein TG, Lindsey MA, Ericksen MB, Chakraborty R, Ryan PH, Villareal MS, Burkle JW, Lockey JE, Reponen T, Khurana Hershey GK

Eczema is very common and increasing in prevalence. Prospective studies investigating environmental and genetic risk factors for eczema in a birth cohort are lacking. We evaluated risk factors that may promote development of childhood eczema in the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study (CCAAPS) birth cohort (n=762) of infants with at least one atopic parent. Objective environmental exposure data were available for each participant. At annual physical examinations, children underwent skin prick tests (SPTs), eczema was diagnosed by a clinician, and DNA was collected. Among Caucasian children, 39% developed eczema by age 3. Children with a pet dog were significantly less likely to have eczema at age one (odds ratio (OR)=0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.40-0.97) or at both ages 2 and 3 (OR=0.54, 95% CI: 0.30-0.97). This finding was most significant among children carrying the CD14-159C/T CC genotype. Carriers of the CD14-159C/T and IL4Ralpha I75V single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) had an increased risk of eczema at both ages 2 and 3 (OR=3.44, 95% CI: 1.56-7.57), especially among children who were SPT+. These results provide new insights into the pathogenesis of eczema in high-risk children and support a protective role for early exposure to dog, especially among those carrying the CD14-159C/T SNP. The results also demonstrate a susceptibility effect of the combination of CD14 and IL4Ralpha SNPs with eczema.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 17 September 2009; doi:10.1038/jid.2009.300.

PMID: 19759553 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Health-related utility among adults with atopic dermatitis treated with 0.1% tacrolimus ointment as maintenance therapy over the long term: findings from the Protopic CONTROL study.

September 17th, 2009 · No Comments

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Health-related utility among adults with atopic dermatitis treated with 0.1% tacrolimus ointment as maintenance therapy over the long term: findings from the Protopic CONTROL study.

Br J Dermatol. 2009 Jul 1;

Authors: Poole CD, Chambers C, Sidhu MK, Currie CJ

Summary Background Long-term maintenance treatment with 0.1% tacrolimus ointment for the prevention of flares has been demonstrated to be well tolerated and effective in adults for the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD) but its impact on health-related utility has not been reported. Objectives The purpose of this study was to estimate utility changes associated with the use of tacrolimus ointment in the maintenance treatment of adults with AD. Methods Data were collected from a clinical trial investigating long-term maintenance treatment with 0.1% tacrolimus ointment in adults with AD. All patients were treated with twice-daily tacrolimus ointment during an open-label period (OLP) of up to 6 weeks, with subsequent randomization to a double-blind disease-control period (DCP) of 12 months comparing tacrolimus ointment, used twice weekly as maintenance treatment, vs. the emollient vehicle as standard treatment. Health-related utility (EQ-5D(index)) was estimated by Monte Carlo simulation from SF-12 responses by application of a published response mapping algorithm and the U.K. tariff for EQ-5D responses and SF-6D responses, respectively. Results Evaluable data were available for 257 patients stratified into mild, moderate or severe AD with a median age at screening of 28 years [interquartile range (IQR) 22-38] and 40% male. At screening the median EQ-5D(index) across the strata was 0.848 units (IQR 0.704-0.882) for mild cases, 0.796 (0.737-0.876) for moderate cases, and 0.760 (0.661-0.823, P < 0.001) for those with severe disease. At the end of the OLP, mean utility improvement across all strata was 0.027 [95% confidence interval (CI) -0.011 to 0.065, P = 0.165] for mild cases, 0.046 (95% CI 0.015-0.064, P = 0.002) for moderate cases and 0.076 (95% CI 0.035-0.118, P < 0.001) for those with severe disease. At the end of the blinded DCP, repeated measures analysis showed an age- and sex-adjusted mean change of 0.045 units (P < 0.001) for subjects treated with tacrolimus ointment over those treated with emollient vehicle. Conclusions Patients with AD of all severities showed considerable decrements in health-related utility. However, treatment with 0.1% tacrolimus ointment was associated with clinically significant improvement in health-related utility for patients with moderate and severe AD, which was sustained over a 12-month maintenance period compared with those using standard treatment with an emollient vehicle.

PMID: 19754867 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Consensus statement on the management of chronic hand eczema.

September 16th, 2009 · No Comments

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Consensus statement on the management of chronic hand eczema.

Clin Exp Dermatol. 2009 Oct;34(7):761-9

Authors: English J, Aldridge R, Gawkrodger DJ, Kownacki S, Statham B, White JM, Williams J

The management of chronic hand eczema is often inadequate. There are currently no evidence-based guidelines specifically for the management of chronic hand eczema, and evidence for established treatments for hand eczema is not of sufficient quality to guide clinical practice. This consensus statement, based on a review of published data and clinical practice in both primary and secondary care, is intended to guide the management of chronic hand eczema. It describes the epidemiology and pathogenesis of hand eczema, its diagnosis and its effect on patients’ quality of life. Management strategies include a skin education programme, lifestyle changes, and the use of emollients, barriers and soap substitutes. Topical drug therapy includes topical steroids and calcineurin inhibitors. Treatment with psoralen ultraviolet A and systemic therapies may then be appropriate, although there is no strong evidence of efficacy. Alitretinoin has been shown to be effective in a randomized controlled trial, and is currently the only treatment specifically licensed for the treatment of hand eczema. Recommendations for management are summarized in a treatment algorithm.

PMID: 19747339 [PubMed - in process]

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Soluble immune receptor serum levels are associated with age, but not with clinical phenotype or disease severity in childhood atopic dermatitis.

September 14th, 2009 · No Comments

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Soluble immune receptor serum levels are associated with age, but not with clinical phenotype or disease severity in childhood atopic dermatitis.

J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2009 Sep 8;

Authors: Ott H, Wilke J, Baron JM, Höger PH, Fölster-Holst R

Abstract Background Soluble immune receptors (SIRs) have been proposed as biomarkers in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). However, their clinical applicability in affected children has rarely been studied. Objective To assess the diagnostic usefulness of serum SIRs in childhood AD by correlating the obtained receptor profiles with serological parameters and clinical features such as age, AD phenotype and disease severity. Methods We investigated 100 children with AD. The sCD14, sCD23, sCD25, sCD30, total IgE (tIgE) and eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP) were determined using sera of all children. The clinical phenotype was classified as extrinsic AD (ADe) or intrinsic AD (ADi) by the presence of allergen-specific IgE antibodies. Results A total of 55 male and 45 female children were recruited. The sCD23, sCD25 and sCD30 serum levels revealed significant age-dependency. At a mean SCORAD of 40 (range 8-98), none of the evaluated SIRs was correlated to disease severity. In all, 73% of patients suffered from ADe while 27% showed the ADi phenotype. None of the analysed SIRs differed significantly between ADe and ADi patients, while tIgE and ECP levels were elevated in the ADe subgroup. Conclusion The current study provides evidence that sCD23, sCD25 and sCD30 serum levels are highly age-dependent. Serum concentrations of all investigated SIRs did not significantly correlate with disease severity in children with AD and were not differentially expressed in patients of different AD phenotypes. Therefore, we believe that the studied SIRs cannot be regarded as clinically useful biomarkers for the assessment of childhood AD.

PMID: 19744181 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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ETFAD/EADV eczema task force 2009 position paper on diagnosis and treatment of atopic dermatitis.

September 11th, 2009 · No Comments

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ETFAD/EADV eczema task force 2009 position paper on diagnosis and treatment of atopic dermatitis.

J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2009 Aug 31;

Authors: Darsow U, Wollenberg A, Simon D, Taïeb A, Werfel T, Oranje A, Gelmetti C, Svensson A, Deleuran M, Calza AM, Giusti F, Lübbe J, Seidenari S, Ring J,

Abstract Background The diagnosis of atopic dermatitis (AD) is made using evaluated clinical criteria. Management of AD must consider the symptomatic variability of the disease. Methods EADV eczema task force developed its guideline for atopic dermatitis diagnosis and treatment based on literature review and repeated consenting group discussions. Results and Discussion Basic therapy relies on hydrating topical treatment and avoidance of specific and unspecific provocation factors. Anti-inflammatory treatment based on topical glucocorticosteroids and topical calcineurin antagonists is used for exacerbation management and more recently for proactive therapy in selected cases. Topical corticosteroids remain the mainstay of therapy, but the topical calcineurin inhibitors, tacrolimus and pimecrolimus are preferred in certain locations. Systemic anti-inflammatory treatment is an option for severe refractory cases. Microbial colonization and superinfection may induce disease exacerbation and can justify additional antimicrobial/antiseptic treatment. Systemic antihistamines (H1) can relieve pruritus, but do not have sufficient effect on eczema. Adjuvant therapy includes UV irradiation preferably of UVA1 wavelength or UVB 311 nm. Dietary recommendations should be specific and given only in diagnosed individual food allergy. Allergen-specific immunotherapy to aeroallergens may be useful in selected cases. Stress-induced exacerbations may make psychosomatic counselling recommendable. ‘Eczema school’ educational programmes have been proven to be helpful.

PMID: 19732254 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Fluocinolone acetonide 0.01% in peanut oil: safety and efficacy data in the treatment of childhood atopic dermatitis in infants as young as 3 months of age.

September 7th, 2009 · No Comments

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Fluocinolone acetonide 0.01% in peanut oil: safety and efficacy data in the treatment of childhood atopic dermatitis in infants as young as 3 months of age.

Pediatr Dermatol. 2009 May-Jun;26(3):262-8

Authors: Dohil MA, Alvarez-Connelly E, Eichenfield LF

Fluocinolone acetonide 0.01% in a blend of refined peanut and mineral oils has been established as effective and safe treatment for atopic dermatitis in patients 2 years and older, including those with peanut sensitivity, for several years. We sought to study the safety of fluocinolone acetonide 0.01% oil and its potential for adrenal axis suppression in infants as young as 3 months of age. A controlled, open-label study was performed in children aged 3 months to 2 years with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis at two academic pediatric dermatology centers. Patients received topical fluocinolone acetonide 0.01% oil twice daily to affected areas involving a minimum of 20% body surface ratio for 4 weeks. Cortisol stimulation testing was performed at baseline and at the end of the treatment phase. Patients were monitored for medication use and adverse events. Efficacy was assessed using the Investigator Global Severity and Response scales. Thirty-two patients with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis were recruited into the study and 30 were evaluated with the Physician’s Global Improvement Assessment tool. The mean body surface ratio treated for all age groups was 48%. Eighty-three percent of patients had marked or better improvement scores by week 2 and 96% by week 4, with 40% completely cleared. No adrenal suppression occurred in the 24 patients that met inclusion criteria for hypothalamus-pituitary axis (HPA) axis analysis. No relevant adverse events occurred. Results of this study support the safety and efficacy of fluocinolone acetonide 0.01% in refined peanut oil vehicle, for infants as young as 3 months of age with atopic dermatitis. No evidence of adrenal suppression or adverse local effects was demonstrated after 4 weeks of twice daily treatment.

PMID: 19706085 [PubMed - in process]

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Quantitative assessment of combination bathing and moisturizing regimens on skin hydration in atopic dermatitis.

September 7th, 2009 · No Comments

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Quantitative assessment of combination bathing and moisturizing regimens on skin hydration in atopic dermatitis.

Pediatr Dermatol. 2009 May-Jun;26(3):273-8

Authors: Chiang C, Eichenfield LF

Standard recommendations for skin care for patients with atopic dermatitis stress the importance of skin hydration and the application of moisturizers. However, objective data to guide recommendations regarding the optimal practice methods of bathing and emollient application are scarce. This study quantified cutaneous hydration status after various combination bathing and moisturizing regimens. Four bathing/moisturizer regimens were evaluated in 10 subjects, five pediatric subjects with atopic dermatitis and five subjects with healthy skin. The regimens consisted of bathing alone without emollient application, bathing and immediate emollient application, bathing and delayed application, and emollient application alone. Each regimen was evaluated in all subjects, utilizing a crossover design. Skin hydration was assessed with standard capacitance measurements. In atopic dermatitis subjects, emollient alone yielded a significantly (p < 0.05) greater mean hydration over 90 minutes (206.2% baseline hydration) than bathing with immediate emollient (141.6%), bathing and delayed emollient (141%), and bathing alone (91.4%). The combination bathing and emollient application regimens demonstrated hydration values at 90 minutes not significantly greater than baseline. Atopic dermatitis subjects had a decreased mean hydration benefit compared with normal skin subjects. Bathing without moisturizer may compromise skin hydration. Bathing followed by moisturizer application provides modest hydration benefits, though less than that of simply applying moisturizer alone.

PMID: 19706087 [PubMed - in process]

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